On February 26, 1993, a truck bomb exploded in an underground parking garage in the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. Six people were killed and more than one thousand others were injured.
From ABC News
Edward Smith remembers vividly the call from the morgue 20 years ago today, that his pregnant wife had died in the World Trade Center bombing hours before she was supposed to start her maternity leave. "It seems like kind of yesterday sometimes," he told ABC News, "but it seems like a long time ago, too."
Four of the six killed -- Robert Kirkpatrick, 61, Stephen A. Knapp, 47, William Macko, 57, and Monica Rodriguez Smith, 35 -- were employees of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which owned the buildings. John DiGiovanni, 45, a dental-supply salesman visiting the World Trade Center, and Wilfredo Mercado, 37, a purchasing agent for Windows on the World restaurant, also died. Read the ABC News report.
World Trade Center evacuees share lessons learned as NFPA starts
new behavior study
From NFPA Journal, September/October 2002
Many veterans of the 1993 World Trade Center truck bombing weren’t going to make the same decision on September 11, 2001, that they’d made eight years before.
“Every fiber of my body said ‘I’m getting out of here,’ says Magdalena Brown, who worked for Washington Group International, an engineering firm on the 91st floor of the South Tower. In 1993, she stayed put for hours, then had to walk down 88 flights in the dark.
On the 74th floor of the North Tower, Dharam Pal, chief mechanical engineer for plumbing and fire protection for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, thought the noise he heard was only the explosion of the television antenna transformer on the roof, but he didn’t hesitate to leave immediately. In 1993, he and his coworkers had stayed because they didn’t realize the severity of the situation. Read the entire NFPA Journal article (PDF).
Study of Human Behavior During the World Trade Center Evacuation
Rita Fahy and Guylene Proulx, PhD , March/April 1995
This NFPA and the National Research Council of Canada conducted a human behavior study on the World Trade Center bombing that occurred on February 26, 1993.
A Decade of
NFPA Journal, September/October 2011
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, NFPA launched a widespread effort to strengthen codes and standards for first responder safety, the built environment, emergency preparedness, and more. Ten years later, those efforts continue — and they’re making America safer. Note: this article includes a sidebar on some of the 9/11-related provisions that have entered NFPA’s codes and standards.
NFPA offers safety tips about evacuating buildings during an emergency, including information about how high-rise evacuations differ from other buildings.